The interaction between GO and biological systems is developing into a research topic of high importance. So far, the studies on influence of GO mostly focused on mammalian cells. The result in cytotoxicity of different oxidation degrees GO-high, medium and low on mouse embryo fibroblasts cells found that lower oxidation degree of GO induced stronger toxicity and a higher level of oxidative stress .
The above results on the effect of GO on mammalian cells are still controversial and need further to be researched.
However, the papers of GO-plant cells are few. These reports about carbon nanomaterial-plant cell interaction can provide valuable reference to study the impact of GO on plant cells. The BY-2 suspension cell line is a widely used plant model in plant biosciences . In this study, physiological effect of GO on the suspension cell, such as cell growth and vitality, morphology of nuclei and activities of antioxidant enzymes were analyzed.
Tobacco BY-2 suspension cells are obtained from Prof. Zhang from laboratory of plant physiology in Shanghai University. Louis, USA.
Other chemicals were purchased from Guoyao Chemical Reagent Company. GO was prepared from natural graphite powder by the modified Hummers method . Then KnMO4 7. The resulting suspension turned into bright yellow. Finally, GO was dispersed in ultra-pure water for 1 h to prepare the stock solution 1. The pH of cultivation media was adjusted to 5. Cells without GO were taken as the control. The cell density of suspension culture was determined by using a Spectrophotometer BioPhotometer, Germany.
Three independent experiments were performed for each condition.
The cell vitality was calculated from the cell mortality, which was performed as described by Rujanapun . Before examination, cells were collected and washed twice with 0. The dead cells were stained with blue color. Over cells were counted for each treatment. Each experiment was conducted in triplicate. Three independent experiments were performed for each condition in three times.
All reagents were introduced following the instructions of the kit. Then cells were observed by a positive fluorescence microscope, and cell images were taken by a charge-coupled device camera equipped with the microscope. X-ray powder diffraction XRD pattern of graphene oxide was shown in Fig. The fold and lamella structure of GO was characterized by TEM, the dimension of lamella showed thin and basically reached the nanometer size. GO had a crude surface, and the edges exhibited a cascade pattern, which was due to more oxygen-containing functional groups on the surface of GO Fig.
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