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IC1805 and IC1848 - The Heart and Soul Nebulae
This 'Philips Atlas' contains a few hundred pages, with a broad sweep across the astronomical spectrum. My edition is from , so is still comparatively up to date. Half of the atlas covers the Solar System, with the usual st I've had this book as a coffee-table accessory for the best part of a year, which is about the time I have upgraded my astro optics into the mm field. Harry Potter. Popular Features. New Releases. Philip's Atlas of the Universe.
Description Now in its 5th edition, this best-selling reference book is a must for amateur astronomers. Written by Sir Patrick Moore, Britain's best-known astronomer, it is a classic and highly readable account of the stars, the planets and the Universe, together with practical advice on observing the night sky. This fully revised new edition has been updated to include the latest information and images from the current space missions, including Cassini. These names come from the Mapuche language of the people of Chile south of Santiago.
Shown here are from left to right Antu, Kueyen, Melipal and Yepun. Working together as an interferometer, these instruments deliver resolution equivalent to that of a single m inch telescope.
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Red light has the longest wavelength and violet the shortest; in between come all the colours of the rainbow — orange, yellow, green and blue. By everyday standards the wavelengths are very short, and we have to introduce less familiar units. The other common unit is the nanometre nm. If the wavelength is outside these limits, the radiations cannot be seen, though they can be detected in other ways; for example, if you switch on an electric fire you will feel the infra-red, in the form of heat, well before the bars become hot enough to glow.
To the long- wave end of the total range of wavelengths, or electro- magnetic spectrum, we have infra-red nanometres to 1 millimetre , microwaves 1 millimetre to 0. To the short-wave end we have ultra-violet nanometres to 10 nanometres , X-rays 10 nanometres to 0. Note that what are called cosmic rays are not rays at all; they are high-speed sub-atomic particles coming from outer space.
Initially, astronomers had to depend solely upon visi- ble light, so that they were rather in the position of a pianist trying to play a waltz on a piano which lacks all its notes except for a few in the middle octave.
Radio telescopes came first. The extremely cold and dry conditions are ideal for observations at submillimetre wavelengths. It has a 3. UKIRT proved to be so good that it can also be used for ordinary optical work, which was sheer bonus.
The largest dish radio telescope in the world, it was completed in ; the dish is However, it is not steerable; though its equipment means that it can survey wide areas of the sky. The latest upgrade was in ; the telescope was given a new galvanized steel surface and a more accurate pointing system. Each of the panes making up the surface was adjusted to make the whole surface follow the optimum parabolic shape to an accuracy of less than 2 mm; the frequency range of the telescope was quadrupled.
The telescope is frequently linked with telescopes abroad to obtain very high resolution observations. The sub-millimetre range of the electromagnetic spectrum extends from 1 millimetre down to 0. The infra-red detectors have to be kept at a very low temperature, as otherwise the radiations from the sky would be swamped by those from the equipment. High altitude — the summit of Mauna Kea is over metres 14, feet — is essential, because infra-red radiations are strongly absorbed by water vapour in the air. Some ultra-violet studies can be carried out from ground level, but virtually all X-rays and most of the gamma rays are blocked by layers in the upper atmos- phere, so that we have to depend upon artificial satellites and space probes.
But they have added immea- surably to our knowledge of the universe. Just as an optical collects light, so a radio telescope collects and focuses radio waves; the name is somewhat misleading, because a radio telescope is really more in the nature of an aerial. It does not produce an optical- type picture, and one certainly cannot look through it; the usual end product is a trace on a graph. Other large dishes have been built in recent times; the largest of all, at Arecibo in Puerto Rico, is set in a natural hollow in the ground, so that it cannot be steered in the same way as the Lovell telescope or the metre foot instrument at Parkes in New South Wales.
Not all radio telescopes are the dish type, and some of them look like collections of poles, but all have the same basic function. Its 27 antennae can be arranged into four different Y-shaped configurations.here
Colour atlas of the universe
Each antenna is 25 m 82 feet in diameter, but when the signals are combined electronically it functions as one giant dish, with the resolution of an antenna 36 km 22 miles across. These days, gamma-ray, X-ray and ultra-violet radiation from hotter bodies and infra-red radiation and radio waves from cooler are also studied. As long ago as the second century AD a Greek satirist, Lucian of Samosata, wrote a story in which a party of sailors passing through the Strait of Gibraltar were caught up in a vast waterspout and hurled on to the Moon.
In Jules Verne published his classic novel in which the travellers were put inside a projectile and fired moonward from the barrel of a powerful gun. This would be rather uncomfortable for the intrepid crew members, quite apart from the fact that it would be a one-way journey only though Verne cleverly avoided this difficulty in his book, which is well worth reading even today. The first truly scientific ideas about spaceflight were due to a Russian, Konstantin Eduardovich Tsiolkovskii, whose first paper appeared in — in an obscure journal, so that it passed almost unnoticed.
Tsiolkovskii knew that ordinary flying machines cannot function in airless space, but rockets can do so, because they depend upon what Isaac Newton called the principle of reaction: every action has an equal and opposite reaction. It consists of a hollow tube filled with gunpowder. As long as the gas streams out, the rocket will continue to fly. This is all very well, but — as Tsiolkovskii realized — solid fuels are weak and unreliable.
A Map of the Heart and Soul Nebulae
Instead, he planned a liquid-fuel rocket motor. Two liquids for example, petrol and liquid oxygen are forced by pumps into a combus- tion chamber; they react together, producing hot gas which is sent out of the exhaust and makes the rocket fly. Tsiolkovskii also suggested using a compound launcher made up of two separate rockets joined together. Initially the lower stage does all the work; when it has used up its propellant it breaks away, leaving the upper stage to continue the journey by using its own motors. In effect, the upper stage has been given a running start.
Robert Hutchings Goddard, the American rocket engineer, built and flew the first liquid-propellant rocket in His work was entirely independent of that of Tsiolkovskii.
Atlas of the Universe by Patrick Moore (Hardcover)
The result was the V2, used to bombard England in the last stages of the war —5. But by then the Russians had already ushered in the Space Age. On 4 October they sent up the first of all man-made moons, Sputnik 1, which carried little on board apart from a radio transmitter, but which marked the beginning of a new era. Remarkable progress has been made since Artificial satellites and space stations have been put into orbit; men have reached the Moon; unmanned probes have been sent past all the planets apart from Pluto, and controlled landings have been made on the surfaces of Mars, Venus and a small asteroid, Eros.
Yet there are still people who question the value of space research. They forget — or choose to ignore — the very real benefits to meteorology, physics, chemistry, medical research and many other branches of science, quite apart from the prac- tical value of modern communications satellites. Moreover, space research is truly international. The gas produced is sent out from the exhaust; and as long as gas continues to stream out, so the rocket will continue to fly.
It does not depend upon having atmosphere around it, and is at its best in outer space, where there is no air-resistance. Ulysses, the spacecraft designed to survey the poles of the Sun, was launched from Cape Canaveral on 6 October ; the probe itself was made in Europe. The photograph here shows the smoke trail left by the departing spacecraft. This photograph was taken from Baikonur, the Russian equivalent of Cape Canaveral.
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It shows a Progress unmanned rocket just before launch; it was sent as a supply vehicle to the orbiting Mir space station. This was the fate of the first satellite, Sputnik 1, which decayed dur- ing the first week of January However, many other satellites will never come down — for example Telstar, the first communications vehicle, which was launched in and is presumably still orbiting, silent and unseen, at an altitude of up to kilometres miles.
Communications satellites are invaluable in the modern world. Without them, there could be no direct television links between the continents. Purely scientific satellites are of many kinds, and are used for many differ- ent programmes; thus the International Ultra-violet Explorer IUE has surveyed the entire sky at ultra-violet wavelengths and operated until , while the Infra-Red Astronomical Satellite IRAS carried out a full infra-red survey during There are X-ray satellites, cosmic-ray vehicles and long-wavelength vehicles, but there are also many satellites designed for military purposes — some- thing which true scientists profoundly regret.
To leave the Earth permanently a probe must reach the escape velocity of Obviously the first target had to be the Moon, because it is so close, and the first successful attempts were made by the Russians in During the s controlled landings were made by both Russian and American vehicles, and the United States Orbiters circled the Moon, sending back detailed photographs of the entire surface and paving the way for the manned landings in Contacting the planets is much more of a problem, because of the increased distances involved and because the planets do not stay conveniently close to us.
The first successful interplanetary vehicle was Mariner 2, which bypassed Venus in ; three years later Mariner 4 sent back the first close-range photographs of Mars. Launched on 4 October , by the Russians; this was the first artificial satellite, and marked the opening of the Space Age.
It orbited the Earth until January , when it burned up. This was the first space probe to pass by the Moon. It was launched by the Russians on 2 January , and bypassed the Moon at a range of km miles on 4 January. Polar orbiting satellites 3 require less powerful rockets than those in geostationary orbits 4 , which need to be much higher at 36, km 22, miles above the Earth.